April 2020 - Pasture Blog Pasture Blog: April 2020

Friday, April 17, 2020

Sub Saharan African Tech Company Recession Plan

Nigeria To Repurpose HIV Test Equipment To Accelerate COVID-19 Testing

Sunday, April 12, 2020

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Tuesday, April 7, 2020

How to Use the Google Docs Outline Tool

google docs outline tool

Long documents can be difficult to navigate in Google Docs. It’s fine to scroll through two or three pages of a document, but if your document is dozens or even hundreds of pages long, you could spend far too much time getting from one section of the document to another.

There’s also the problem of finding what you need in your document. Simply put: Without the use of a tool, long documents can be hard to manage.

Google Docs has a feature called the Outline Tool and it helps you quickly jump around your document and find sections that you need.

Finding the Google Docs Outline Tool

When you’re working from Google Docs on the web, you must start from an open document. It can be a new or existing document. Then, to open the Outline Tool follow these steps:

  1. Click the View menu.

  2. Select Show document outline.

    google docs outline tool

  3. Alternatively, you can use the keyboard shortcuts Ctrl+Alt+A or Ctrl+Alt+H.

Once you’ve enabled the Outline Tool, the outline for your document will appear in the left-hand document pane.

If you’re using an Android or iOS device, to enable the document outline, tap More (the three-dot menu in the upper right corner), and choose Document Outline. The outline will appear at the bottom of the screen.

To disable the document outline on the web, click the X in the top right corner of the Outline Tool. On Android or iOS, tap anywhere outside of the outline to hide it, or repeat the steps above to disable the outline.

How to Make a Google Docs Outline

Once the Outline Tool is enabled, creating or adding to the outline for the document is simple.


  1. For new documents, create a single line of bold or underlined text to automatically add a heading to the outline.

  2. For existing documents, format a single line of text using bold or underline formatting, or use the format menu to choose a heading option.

    google docs outline tool


    If you want to create levels in your outline, you must format the headings using the Format menu to designate headings as Heading 1, Heading 2, Heading 3, or Heading 4. Also, while the title will appear in an outline, the subtitle will not.

  3. You'll see your outline begin to take form in the Outline pane to the left of the document.


  1. For new documents, create a single line of bold or underlined text to automatically add a heading to the outline.

  2. For existing documents, format a single line of text using bold or underline formatting, or use the format menu to choose a heading option.

    To format headings so they are assigned to designated levels in your outline, tap Format > Text > Style, and then choose the desired heading level. Also, while the title will appear in an outline, the subtitle will not.

  3. Your outline will display at the bottom of your screen.

Navigating a Google Docs Outline

Once you’ve created an outline in your Google Docs document, navigating through the document using the outline is easy. On the web, just click the section of the outline you want to access and your cursor will be moved to be beginning of that section.

On Android and iOS devices, open the outline and tap the place in the outline where you want to go. Alternatively, if the outline is enabled, but hidden, and you begin to scroll through the document you’ll see a double-arrow slider appear on the right side of the document. Tap that to open the outline, then select the location in the outline you want to go. As with other methods, your cursor is placed at the beginning of that section.

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Sunday, April 5, 2020

Coronavirus: Google reveals travel habits during the pandemic

Google is to publicly track people's movements over the course of the coronavirus pandemic.

The tech firm will publish details of the different types of places people are going to on a county-by-county basis in the UK, as well as similar data for 130 other countries.

The plan is to issue a regular updates with the figures referring back to activity from two or three days prior.

The company has promised that individuals' privacy will be preserved.

The readings are based on location data gathered via the Google Maps app or one of the firm's other mobile services.

The firm typically uses this to reveal when specific museums, shops and other places are busiest as well as to revise driving routes to help motorists avoid traffic.

In this case, the readings will be broken down to reveal how busy the following types of places are compared to a period earlier in the year before lockdowns were introduced:

  • retail and recreation

  • grocery and pharmacy

  • parks, beaches and plazas

  • bus, subway and train stations

  • office buildings and other places of work

  • residential

Google said it hoped the information could be used by public health chiefs and others to help manage the outbreak.

"This information could help officials understand changes in essential trips that can shape recommendations on business hours or inform delivery service offerings," it blogged.

"Similarly, persistent visits to transportation hubs might indicate the need to add additional buses or trains in order to allow people... room to spread out for social distancing."

The company says it has both anonymised the records and mixed in some randomly-generated data to safeguard individual users' histories, device owners can also decide not to supply data.

"The data may prove startling to people who are unaware of just how much information Google collects," remarked the BBC's technology correspondent Rory Cellan-Jones.

"It will also provide fascinating insights into how the lockdown is working - or was working 48 hours earlier.

"And there could be unintended consequences. People could decide to avoid busy locations or they may be surprised at just how many people are going outside and decide to join them."

The first report covers data for 29 March and compares it to a median reading for the five-week period covering 3 January to 6 February.

It indicates that for the UK as a whole, trips to:

  • retail and recreation sites were 85% down

  • grocery and pharmacies were 46% down

  • parks were 52% down

  • transit stations were 75% down

  • workplaces were 55% down

  • places of residence were 15% higher

By comparison, the figures for France indicate trips to:

  • retail and recreation sites were 88% down

  • grocery and pharmacies were 72% down

  • parks were 82% down

  • transit stations were 87% down

  • workplaces were 56% down

  • places of residence were 18% higher

Google's launch comes a day after EU justice chief Vera Jourova called on the tech giants to share more data with scientists trying to combat the virus.

She also criticised them for not doing more to crack down on false information.

"We still see that the major platforms continue to monetise and incentivise disinformation and harmful content about the pandemic by hosting online ads," said the commissioner.

"This should be stopped. The financial disincentives from clickbait disinformation and profiteering scams also should be stopped."

Mast Fire Probe Amid 5G Coronavirus Claims

Mobile phone mast fires are being investigated amid conspiracy theories claiming a link between 5G and coronavirus.

There have been fires at masts in Birmingham, Liverpool and Melling in Merseyside.

A video, allegedly of the blaze in Aigburth, was shared on YouTube and Facebook, claiming a link between the mobile technology and Covid-19.

Cabinet Office minister Michael Gove said it was "dangerous nonsense".

The Department for Digital, Culture, Media and Sport said on Twitter "there is absolutely no credible evidence" of a link, while trade body Mobile UK said such rumours and conspiracy theories were "concerning".

Merseyside Police said an investigation is under way after the telecommunications box in Aigburth caught fire on Friday.

A video of what appears to be the incident, which happened shortly after 22:00 BST, was shared on YouTube.

Verification from the BBC's disinformation team suggests the video is authentic, however, it is unclear whether the box has anything to do with 5G technology.

Merseyside Fire and Rescue Service said it is also investigating a blaze it extinguished at a 5G mast in the village of Melling, north of Liverpool, on Friday night.

West Midlands Fire Service said the fire in Birmingham involved a 70ft tower on a telecommunications site. However, it said the cause was yet to be identified and it could not confirm the mast was 5G.

A West Midlands Police spokesman said: "We're aware of a fire involving a phone mast, but are awaiting further details on its cause."

At the government's daily coronavirus briefing earlier, Mr Gove said conspiracy theories linking 5G with Covid-19 were "just nonsense, dangerous nonsense as well."

NHS Director Stephen Powis told the press conference 5G infrastructure is critical both to the general population who are being asked to stay at home and to the healthcare response to the virus.

"I'm absolutely outraged and disgusted that people would be taking action against the infrastructure we need to tackle this emergency," he said.

Mobile UK said key workers had suffered abuse and threats from people about damaging infrastructure under the pretence of claims about 5G.

"This is not acceptable and only impacts on our ability as an industry to maintain the resilience and operational capacity of the networks to support mass home working and critical connectivity to the emergency services, vulnerable consumers and hospitals."


By Leo Kelion, BBC technology desk editor

Conspiracy theories linking 5G signals to the coronavirus pandemic continue to spread despite there being no evidence the mobile phone signals pose a health risk.

Fact-checking charity Full Fact has linked the claims to two flawed theories.

One suggests 5G suppresses the immune system, the other claims the virus is somehow using the network's radio waves to communicate and pick victims, accelerating its spread.

While 5G uses different radio frequencies to its predecessors, it's important to recognise that the waveband involved is still "non-ionising", meaning it lacks enough energy to break apart chemical bonds in the DNA in our cells to cause damage.

The second theory appears to be based on the work of a Nobel Prize-winning biologist who suggested bacteria could generate radio waves.

But this remains a controversial idea and well outside mainstream scientific thought.

There's another major flaw with both these theories. Coronavirus is spreading in UK cities where 5G has yet to be deployed, and in countries like Japan and Iran that have yet to adopt the technology.